Fathrah Miolo, M.Pd
In verbal communication, we use language to communicate face to face with other people, and we can’t communicate our language without words. That’s why, word is very important thing in a verbal language. It would be nice if our language can be understood by the listener. Thornbury (2002:1) indicated that all languages have words. Language emerges first as words, both historically, and in terms of the way each of us learned our first and any subsequent languages. So, Good communication can be created if we can understand what the recipient means is. In accordance with the demands of English language learning goals, namely to communicate both orally and in writing, then the students are required to have an adequate understanding of vocabulary so that they will be able to communicate well in a variety of contexts and themes.
Activity based learning in basic language will depend on student understanding with the vocabulary. Students must have access to the meaning of words used by teachers and the surrounding environment. The limited understanding of students’ vocabulary will result in inhibition of language competence. However the learning itself depends on the language. The importance of vocabulary development is to connect how much vocabulary is mastered by the students with language learning academic material. The lack of understanding of vocabulary is a major cause of academic failure experienced by the students.
Understanding of conversation also depends on the vocabulary that is owned by someone. According to curriculum of Vocational School especially at the intermediate level, the students have to own vocabulary about 3000 to 3500 words. But this is not owned by my students.This reality is based on the pre – observation. In pre – observation, I found that the result of students’ vocabulary in English showed the lower value. Their value of vocabulary showed 90% lower than the standard of they have to own.
The finding showed that the students are not very communicative in teaching and learning, for example if I ask to the students in English, they just look at me with doing nothing. So, I must to translate into Indonesian what I mean. Although, English had already studied before, but in generally, students have met difficulties in speaking because they only own limited vocabulary. There is a lot of time have to be finished in learning English. It proved that students can’t speak English fluently. That’s why; the teaching of English in Gorontalo especially at twelfth grade students should be handled seriously by the teacher of English.
Similarly, the teaching of English especially in vocabulary is ineffectively. It is indicated by expressing ideas orally in English is often problematic due to lack of students’ courage in expressing his/her idea to start a good English speaking to the teacher or to his/her friends. This is not only lack of idea but also the students’ vocabulary in English is poor. If I compare the mastery of vocabulary among elementary school students who have received English language lessons with the twelfth grade students of SMK Negeri 4 Gorontalo, I can conclude that the elementary students are more control of vocabulary than my students.
In the other side, there is no interest by the students to learn English because the lack of technique used by the teacher in teaching English. The success of teaching English as a foreign language is determined by many factors, such as, models of learning, material/lesson/curriculmn and the attitudes of the students/underachievement toward learning English, teacher, and etc. Therefore, the teacher must give strong motivation to the students in learning English.
In the implementation process of learning English, the researcher also found that they often had difficulty understanding the meaning of a word because they are relatively less understanding of appropriate vocabulary so that the process of achieving a basic competency will run longer. In addition, it also very common to find that if the students showing their limitation in understanding a new word, a teacher would easily instruct them to find the meaning in dictionary. Consequently, this will not encourage the students to empower theselves in order to understand the new word by understanding a sentence for example as a whole meaning.
As Danarti (2008 : III) said language is not only in mind, but also it must be used and practised in a real situation. So, it needs a condition that the students can practise their English in an enjoyable. Agoestyowati (2010: xvii) also described that the learning with fun will help students to learn more effectively, and of course will encourage even shy students to join the activities. The activities provide opportunities for students to work as individual, pairs, small groups or teams.
Based on the statement by the experts above, the real situation likes learning with media can make the students enjoy learning English. In using media like using example non example learning model, the students are more emphasize to use verbal communication than visual communication. Therefore, the students are expected to enrich their vocabulary by using example non example learning model.
The effect of using media especially using example non example learning model may be able to make the students easier to understand the material. The teacher should be aware that interesting media likeexample non example learning model can be helpful for the students to learn English enjoyable. The model of learning English by using example non example learning model actually can effective to teach the students’ vocabulary in English. In the other words, learning English by using example non example learning model can create an enjoyable learning environment, so that the students get the spirit, make them creative and increase their vocabulary in English. This technique deliberately creates until the students can easily master the vocabulary. And the students to be more interested in learning English than before. The students will have fun to get the lesson.
But this technique also has been negative effect, such as requires certain techniques convey, requires considerable media, arresting a considerable amount of time in the pass. But this approach can be applied by using a variety of delivery, students feel impressed and happy during the learning process and it is easy for the students to remember.
Based on the problems above, the researcher try to apply this technique to overcome the difficulties in learning English especially in vocabulary, it might be used an interesting learning model such as through example non example learning model in teaching and learning process.
1.2. Problem Identification
As I said in previous section, there are several problems that I found in my research. They are.
1. They can’t communicate in English because they have limited vocabulary
2. The mastery of vocabulary by my students is lower than the elementary school
3. There is no interest of the students in learning English because the lack of technique is used by the teacher.
4. If they found difficult words, the teacher would easily to instruct them to find out in the dictionary, so their vocabulary didn’t encourage.
1.3. Problem Solving
The problem solving of my research is using media in teaching and learning process especially using example non example learning model to teach the students’ vocabulary in English.
1.4. The Aims of Research
1. The teacher can motivate the students to learn English especially to encourage their vocabulary. It makes an enjoyable situation, so the students have fun to get lesson. And, It gives solution for the other teacher to increase the students’ skill and the quality of teaching and learning process.
2. The students can enrich their vocabulary in English. Learning English through example non example learning model make students comfort. So, They can communicatively than before.
3. The example non example learning model are media which can contribute for the school to teach the students’ vocabulary in English.
THE LITERATURE REVIEW
2.1. The Use of Media in Teaching English
A few definitions of instructional media like the experts say. Sadiman (2002:6) said that media is anything that can be used to send messages from the sender to the recipient so it has to stimulate thoughts, feelings, concerns, and interests towards the students who lead the learning process. Another limitation noted by Fleming (in Arsyad: 2008:3) media also is a tool of intervened in the two parties and reconcile. So, media is anything that can deliver messages, to stimulate thoughts, feelings, and the willingness of learners to encourage the creation of the learning process of the learners itself.
For benefits of media in learning proccess according to the experts put forward as follows.
Levie and Lentz (in Arsyad, 2008:16) proposed four functions of instructional media, particularly in visual media, they are:
1. Function of attention, he pointed out that this aims is to make students more concentration on the lesson.
2. Affective function is defined more enjoyable for students when learning through a visual image or symbol.
3. Cognitive function of the media, he says that the image or visual symbol is to facilitate the achievement of objectives to understand and remember information or messages contained in images.
4. Compensatory function, according to him to accommodate students who are weak and slow to accept and understand the lessons that presented with the text or presented with verbally.
In general, the benefit of the media in the learning process is to facilitate interaction between teachers and students so that learning will be more effective and efficient.
The reasons why the medium of learning can enhance students’ in learning process, namely, the first reason is related to benefit of teaching media itself, among others: (a). an attractive teaching can make the students interest, so the motivation to learn can alive, (b) the material more clearly, it means, so the aim of the learning proccess could be reach, (c) teaching methods will vary, (d) the students can do more in learning activities, such as observing, performing, demonstrating and others.
The second reason, that is in accordance with level of student thinking. Start from concrete to abstract thinking stage, starting from simple to complex thinking. Because with the media teaching abstract things that can be made real things, and complex things can be simplified. Those are some reasons why instructional media to enhance success in teaching and learning.
Based on the statement and reason of media above, in this research I interest to use one media in teaching vocabulary, and it is picture. According to Harmer (2002:134) the teachers have always used pictures or graphics – whether drawn, taken from books, newspapers and magazines, or photographs – to facilitate learning. He gives a statement about the different kinds of picture. It can be in the form of flashcards (smallish cards which can hold up for the students to see), large wall pictures (big enough for everyone to see details), cue cards (small cards which students use in pair or group work), photographs, or illustrations (typically in a textbook). According to him pictures of all kinds can be used in a multiplicity of ways like in drills, communication games, understanding in meaning, ornamentation, prediction and discussion.
Similar things expressed by Haycraft (1994:103) that picture card are useful for presenting, practising and revising vocabulary or as prompts for other activities for example, to illustrate the characters in a dialogue, to help students improvise. He also state that the example non example learning model can be used as prompts for simple subtitutions drills. Instead of saying a word, you hold up cards. Based on the experts said above, in this research I would like to investigate how example non example learning model are used to teach the students’ vocabulary in English.
2.2. Learning Vocabulary in English
Language is appeared by word. Without words there is nothing can be expressed. We can’t make a communication without using words. This is the important thing of a word. Like Thornbury (2002:13) argues that without grammar very little can be conveyed, without vocabulary nothing can be conveyed.
As we know that vocabulary is the total number of words in a language. It is also a collection of words of a person who knows and uses in speaking and writing. Vocabulary is the sum of all the words in a language; also the ability of words known and used someone in speaking and writing. Vocabularies of a language are always experienced change and evolve because of the increasingly complex life. An exact amount of vocabulary in English cannot be ascertained, but reliable estimates say about 1 million. Based on the definition above, it is clear that mastery of vocabulary enough, it is important to be able to learn the language well. Besides talking about language, it cannot be separated from the vocabulary. Vocabulary is the words that people understand both its meaning and usage. How much vocabulary which must belong to someone? A must have enough vocabulary to understand what is read and heard, could speak and write with the right words so that it can be understood by others.
Vocabulary is all the words contained in a language, the word property owned by a reader, writer and speaker word used in a science. Teaching vocabulary is not only through language lessons, but also through other lessons like fun activity in learning. Active and continuous exercise will also make an easy way to remember a new word. Mastery of vocabulary is very important as a means to understand the language spoken by the speaker, directly or indirectly, orally or in writing. With a good mastery of vocabulary will create effective communication between the speaker and talking partners.
Quality of one’s language skills obviously depend on the quality and quantity of its vocabulary. Someone who has increasingly rich of vocabulary, so it makes them is more skilled in using it. We need to realize and truly understand that mastery of a subject matter in school is determined by the quality of students’ language skills themselves. Completion of teaching materials will also mean a guarantee would increase the quantity and quality of their vocabulary in every field of study which they obtained in accordance with the curriculum. Many of the less understood and realized that the value indicated on the student report card reflects the quantity and quality of students’ vocabulary. Good or bad report cards that reflect the value of good or not their language skills. If this problem really paid attention, it is understandable how important learning vocabulary in school applying to school as early as possible. Quantity and quality of students’ vocabulary is to help the determine success in life.
Quality and quantity of the extent and depth of one’s mastery of vocabulary is an index of personal best for his mental development. Vocabulary development is a conceptual development, is a goal of primary education for every school or college. All education in principle is the development of vocabulary which is also a conceptual development. A systematic program for vocabulary development will be influenced by age, gender, income, ability, innate, social status and geographical factors. As in the vocabulary learning process that guides students who have been known to moving towards progress or not yet known. Therefore, the effective of vocabulary study should be moved in the same direction or not known (Tarigan; 1986:2-3).
Thornbury (2002:3-11) states that there are several aspects in a word that can be described and categorised in teaching vocabulary, such as word classes, word families, word formation, multi-word units, collocations, homonyms, polysemes, synonyms and antonyms, hyponyms, lexical fields, style and connotation. He said that a word is a more complex phenomenon than at first it might appear.
Scott Thornbury (2002:12) in his book points below.
• Words have different functions, some carrying mainly grammatical meaning, while others bear a greater informational load
• The same word can have a variety of forms
• Words can be added to, or combined, to form new words
• Words can group together to form units that behave as if they were single words
• Many words commonly co-occur with other words
• Words may look and/or sound the same but have quite different meanings
• One word may have a variety of overlapping meanings
• Different words may share similar meanings, or may have opposite meanings
• Some words can be defined in terms of their relationship with other words-whether, for example, they belong to the same set, or co-occur in similar texts.
• Words can have the same or similar meanings but be used in different situations or for different effects.
It is clear that the description above reflects the nature of language learning, which students are able to communicate both orally and in writing. To achieve this, students are given the ability of adequate vocabulary, because without vocabulary the student cannot communicate optimally. According to its nature of learning languages, learning does not teach vocabulary words or phrases separated off, but it was involved in example non example learning model. In teaching vocabulary, I will teach students in word classes of vocabulary.
2.3. Observation of Action Research and Assessment of Vocabulary
In this research, I used observation, questionaire, interview, and test. The observation gathered through an observation sheet to monitor the teaching and learning proccess. The form of observation sheet contained of information about the teacher, the classroom and the students. It established fourteen aspects to gather the data about the students’ activity in class. Good, enough and lack are three criteria of the observation sheet. The colaborator gave a thick (√) for each aspects.
The second way of collecting data is questionnaire. Questionnaire was used to collect the data on the students’ responses by using example non example learning model. It was done at the end of the first cycle. Respondents must respond to the ten items of questions. Each item has four answers. Respondents answer the questions according to their opinion.
The third way is the result of pre-test and post-test. The test gave to measure the students’ skills in vocabulary. The results of pre-test and post-test can be found in appendix 3 and 24. In addition of pre-test and post test, the test would be in the form of an oral test. The researcher attached example non example learning model. Then the researcher asked for the students to give the information orally based on the example non example learning model. By giving example non example learning model, the researcher will know the students’ vocabulary based on their result of oral test. The test would be given at the end of the class. Oral test results can be known by looking at the appendix 5, 7 and 9.
The last way was interview. In this case, interview was a support data. Interview contained several questions about the application of example non example learning model in learning activity. Students respond to each question according to what they experienced before and after the application of example non example learning model. The students’ responses would be recorded in a trascription.
2.4. Alternatives Action Research
The researcher has tendency to use Lewin’s model. Lewin (in in Wiriaatmadja; 2005; 64) states seven teps of action research. They are (a) identifying ideas or general problem, (b) doing a check in the field, (c) making general planning, (d) developing the first action, (e) implementing the first action, (f) evaluating, and (g) revising planning for the second action. This all will be further explained in methodology chapter.
The hypothesis of the research is formulated as follows: “Through Example Non Example Learning Model Can Teach The Students’ Vocabulary in English “.
2.6. Indicators of success
The indicators of success are as follows:
1. The teaching and learning process is called success if the result of the observation shows 70% from the observation items are in very effective criteria and moderately effective criteria.
2. The application of example non example learning model in teaching vocabulary is regarded successful if the students’ vocabulary is reach 75% out of students to get 60. It means that 75% or four students from the all subjects of research (six) get the value at least 60 in vocabulary assessment.
METHODOLOGY OF RESEARCH
3.1. Setting and Characteristics of Research
The research was conducted at SMK Negeri 4 Gorontalo, which located at Jalan Madura Kel. Pulubala Kec Kota Tengah. SMK Negeri 4 Gorontalo has fifteen classes with total number of students registered in the 2013/2014 academic years is 257 students. They consists of 77 students are in the tenth grade, 89 students are in the eleventh grade, and 91 students are in the twelfth grade. The research was implemented at the twelfth grade students in the 2013/2014 academic years. Time of the research conducted about three months from Januari 2014 to March 2014. In this research, there was one collaborator to help the research to do the action research. He was an English teacher in my school.
3.2. Action Research Design
In action research design, the researcher used Lewin’s model. Lewin (in Wiriaatmadja; 2005; 64) states seven steps of action research. They were (a) identifying ideas or general problem, (b) doing a check in the field, (c) making general planning, (d) developing the first action, (e) implementing the first action, (f) evaluating, and (g) revising planning for the second action.
The actions was classroom action research. The aim of this study was to find out how example non example learning model be used at the twelfth grade of SMK Negeri 4 Gorontalo, so it can affect to the students’ vocabulary in English. This research assissted by the participant as a collaborator. And the participant was an English teacher at my school. He was as an observer in my research, and he also observed the students with the some cycles until the indicator of success could be reached. Each cycle comprised four stages. They were: planning, implementation of action, observation and reflection.
3.3. Subject of the Research
The subject of the research was the twelfth grade students of Garmen Department in SMK Negeri 4 Gorontalo. The class has six students, all of them are girls.
3.4. Technique of Collecting Data
The data collected by observation, questionaire, interview, and test (see Chapter II). The observation gathered through an observation sheet to monitor the teaching and learning proccess.
3.5. Technique of Analyzing the Data
In analyzing the data, the researcher used two techniques, they are descriptive qualitative and quantitative. Descriptive qualitative is used to describe the result of teaching and learning process by using example non example learning model, and quantitative is used to analyze the data by statistical analyze.
Based on the explanation above, I used procedure in analyzing the data and giving scores based on data collected according to the source of data acquired. When analyzed, I described it qualitative to the data from the students vocabulary scores, observation result and the students respond to the questionnaire provided.
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